ОБСЛЕДВАНЕ НА СГРАДА
The correct solution of structural problems or planned changes to existing building structures begins with an inspection and diagnosis of the security of the building. The inspection of the structure is the collection of sufficient information about the structure of the building.The process begins with a comprehensive inspection by a design engineer, familiarization with the available construction documentation and identification of elements for additional inspection and diagnosis. Based on the information gathered, the civil engineer prepares an analysis of the condition of the building in the form of a constructive statement or passport. These construction documents serve as the basis for the future constructive project for strengthening, reconstruction, upgrading or change of use. The ultimate goal is to achieve in the optimal way for the contracting authority the necessary safety, extension of the service life of the structure or modernization.
After a complete inspection and architectural filming, there are cases in which a constructive survey will be needed. It includes:
1. Analysis of available building construction documentation
The construction documentation for the building is a starting point for determining the quality of the project and the security of the supporting structure. After analyzing the available documentation, it is necessary to check for compliance between the project and the actual implementation. A significant phenomenon in the Bulgarian construction practice are the significant deviations in the course of implementation.
2. Diagnostics and verification of the current state of the structure
In easier cases, diagnostics of the condition of a building can be performed on the basis of a visual inspection by a construction engineer. In more complex case studies, additional research is needed to more accurately clarify the problem and ways to optimally eliminate it. The necessary information may include a study of the soil characteristics under the building (geological survey), non-destructive and destructive determination of the characteristics of the building materials, assessment of the structural system and the quality of the building.
3. Determination of the actual and future loads
One of the main causes of defects and accidents in structures is the increase of the load on them. The addition of a payload of heavy screeds, granite tiles, machinery and others that were not originally provided for in the project poses a danger to the building. Signs of a defect are cracked elements and inadmissible sags in them. In the presence of such it is necessary to immediately consult a design engineer.
4. Experimental study.
Includes destructive and non-destructive methods for studying the qualities of the materials used and the behavior of the structure (only in cases where it is not possible to give a sufficiently accurate assessment of the load-bearing capacity of the structure or element, as well as insufficient information and experience in repair technology)
5. Геоложко проучване на почвата под сградата
The geological survey is used to determine soil characteristics and groundwater levels. In general, it is expressed in the taking of soil samples from characteristic points and their laboratory testing. After analyzing the data from the geological survey, a geological report is prepared indicating the optimal approach for solving the diagnosed problems. The most common defects solved by geological research are uneven subsidence in the foundations, high humidity and landslides.
6. Determination of potential reserves in the bearing capacity of the structure and determination of the structural elements, parts and joints that need to be restored, replaced or strengthened
The initial data from the technical condition diagnostics and the geological survey are used for further actions. The data from them are the basis of the project for restoration, strengthening or reconstruction. Given the dangers, complexity and complexity of the engineering task, the initial data from the survey are of particular importance and should be given special attention.
When do you need a constructive opinion?
The construction statement is a necessary technical document before renovation including a constructive or non-constructive change in the building. Such repairs include removing or building partition walls, making holes in walls and slabs, and more. The preparation of a technical opinion is mandatory if you wish to obtain a certificate of tolerance of an existing building. Changing the purpose of an object is also accompanied by this document.
For the constructions under art. 147, para 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 of the Spatial Development Act, for which approval of an investment project is not required, but a construction permit is required as:
-greenhouses with an area up to 200 sq.m .;
-pools with a capacity of up to 100 cubic meters;
- retaining walls up to 2 m high;
-glazing of balconies and loggias;
-when legalizing existing buildings and preparing a technical passport.
What is a constructive opinion?
This is a text that describes the structure in which the specified construction activities are performed. If necessary, the opinion may include calculations regarding the load-bearing capacity of the structure and the intended changes. An obligatory element is a graphic part with details for implementation.
How much does it cost to prepare a constructive opinion for a building?
The price for inspection and preparation of a technical opinion does not vary according to the specifics of the site. The minimum price for a technical opinion is BGN 350.
Technical passport of a building
The technical passport consists for all completed new constructions before their commissioning, as well as for existing buildings. Exclusion with additional construction, temporary constructions, illegal within the meaning of Art. 225, para. 2 of the Spatial Development Act, as well as these without permanent development status.
A technical passport for the existing buildings shall be drawn up only after an inspection has been carried out to establish their technical characteristics, related to the requirements under Art. 169, para 1, para 2 and para 3 of the Spatial Development Act.
The preparation of a technical passport is regulated by Art. 176a from Spatial Planning Act (SPA) and Ordinance № 5 of 2006 on the technical passports of the constructions. It defines the scope and content of the technical passports of the constructions.
What does the passport of a building contain?
In general, the documents included in the passport give clarity about the condition and reliability of the structure and the necessary measures for maintenance and trouble-free operation in the future. The first chapter of the passport contains basic characteristics of the site such as identification data and parameters - type of construction, purpose, category of construction, year of construction, structural system, data on past reconstructions, available documentation and others.The second chapter includes, basic volume planning and functional indicators, part of constructions, as well as installation and technological provision. At this stage of the certification it may be necessary to photograph the building - in plan and facades. The conclusion is the last chapter of the passport, as it describes in detail all the measures for maintaining the building in good condition and deadlines for carrying out the necessary repairs.
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