1.Трябва ли да се притеснявам при появата на пукнатина в сградата/къщата?
Cracks in buildings are divided into structural and cosmetic. They are formed as a result of various causes, most often these are uneven subsidence in the ground base, earthquake impacts or reduced strength of the input materials. When they appear, it is mandatory to seek advice from a highly qualified specialist in the field of inspection and testing of building structures.
Insurance companies file claims against building owners for full damages. It also leads to the imposition of administrative fines in the amount of 1000 to 5000 BGN. Ultimately, the owners also have a moral obligation to keep the building safe for others.
2.Провиснала и напукана плоча?
The most common case of cracks in the slabs is immediately after their formwork removal due to unacceptable deformations in them. The reason for cracking in this case may be the lack of needed support to the minimum required strength of the concrete, its inferior performance, incorrectly laid or wrongly constructed reinforcement, common in old houses built around the middle of the last century. Cracking of the slab can also occur as a result of the concrete being cured after application. These cracks must be closed by a cement screed to protect reinforcement and concrete from external influences. This is especially true for rooms with high humidity or aggressive agents in their air environment, where dense filling of the cracks is absolutely necessary as soon as they occur.
Unlike other companies on the market, we are not bound by the use of certain materials and technologies, which gives us the freedom to choose the best solution. After a careful analysis of the collected data, the necessary repairs are carried out without any unnecessary work. The Expert Assessment sets out specific objectives and defines the types of repair activities to obtain urgent results such as:
– restoring and increasing stiffness
– recovering and increasing strength
– restoration and enhancement of construction features
– providing watertightness
– improving the appearance of the surface
– extending the life of the building
– preventing the development of corrosion in the reinforcement and concrete
Depending on the objectives, combination between several types of repairs may be required to achieve different results.
3.Как може да се подходи при вече образувани пукнатини в хоризонтални елементи?
If the slab is deformed beyond the norm, the owner of the structure must immediately contact a specialist to make the necessary inspection of the structure. The investigation is intended to identify the cause of the defect in the design, the momentary and predictive state, and whether it can be exploited in this condition or constructive repair is required. In building practice, solving such defects can be divided into two types: classic and modern approach. The classic type of solutions are more conservative. They have been in place for many years in building practice, despite their number of disadvantages compared to more modern systems. The use of additional reinforced concrete leads to costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive „wet“ construction processes during repair. That significantly increase the building’s weight, distorting the interior and diminishing the geometric dimensions of the room.
4.Как се постъпва при отваряне на пукнатини във вече изградена и експлоатирана във времето плоча?
The most common case causing this effect is the change of the purpose of the premises, accompanied by an increase in the useful load in them.
This must be determined by a specialist who should provide solutions against future damage to the structure. The repair must prevent from further defects and destruction, damage to the appearance of the structure and damage to the equipment and people as soon as possible.
5. Предлагате ли услуги свързани с изграждане и узаконяване на пристройка – масивна или временна?
A common case in practice is the addition of new areas to existing ones. We are ready to consult for specific objects from a constructive point of view as well as a legalization documents.
You can contact us for advice both from a constructive point of view and from a documentary point of view.
6.Мога ли да спестя пари, без да жертвам от качеството?
Yes, this is quite possible. The repair made in time itself is an investment in the building’s resource, which acts as a preventive measure against the development of more serious problems requiring more capital for its solution. On the other hand, choosing an optimal system for each site guarantees the best balance between cost, execution time and lasting results.
Due to the high humidity in the walls and foundations, mold is formed and the strength of load-bearing structural elements is compromised. This is often accompanied by cosmetic and hygienic defects that prevent the affected premises from being used as intended. Sometimes it leads to flooding of the foundations and material damage to the property located there. Corrosion in reinforcement and collapse of concrete are the next stage in which neglecting the problem can lead to serious consequences. Bare, corroded reinforcement is a sure sign of the need for urgent measures.
Fortunately, there are innovative methods for removing moisture in the foundations of old buildings. A reliable way to do this is to create a watertight section in several rows of masonry. Holes are drilled in the areas affected by moisture through which a hydrophobic solution is injected. In this way, the distribution of moisture is limited to the injected area and its capillary passage along the height of the wall is prevented. Unlike most products that offer only a cosmetic or temporary solution to the problem, the injected waterproofing also protects the structure from the harmful effects of groundwater.
In the areas treated with hydrophobic solution, the destructive processes in the building materials are greatly reduced. The method does not require demolition and excavation of the foundations. Execution time is fast and the finishing works are small in volume and value. With a well-executed injected barrier, its life is equal to the life of the building itself. The possibility of the method to be applied only locally, in a limited area of the building, as well as its price, allow it to be economically advantageous in combating moisture in the basements of single-family houses.
7. Нося ли вина при причинени физически увреждания или материални щети върху трети лица в следствие от падане на фасадни или покривни елементи ?
Owner’s responsibility is to keep a safe environment. According to of the Spatial Development Act, in the case of a possible accident, due to poor maintenance or exploitation, they are fully responsible for it. The lack of maintenance of facade and roofing elements is a common practice even in the central parts of cities. Falling materials endanger the lives and health of passing pedestrians and often cause no minor damage to parked vehicles nearby.
The evaluation на текущото и прогнозно състояние на дефектирала сграда е сложна инженерна задача обхващаща множество фактори. Решението за нужда от конструктивни ремонтни дейности и подходящ подход е извън компетенциите на редовите инженери. Разбира се, в повечето случаи, пукнатините са само визуални и не засягат безопасната експлоатация на сградата. В някой частни случаи обаче, запълването на въпросните пукнатини е задължително от конструктивна гледна точка с цел безопасност. При вземането на марки на време, размерите на самия ремонт са минимални и засягат само няколко сантиметра около образувалата се пукнатина в бетона или тухлите. Често срещана заблуда е мита, че ако пукнатината не увеличава своите размери, тя не е опасна за конструкцията и няма нужда от своевременни мерки за диагностициране и отстраняване на причинителя. Цената за първичен оглед на сграда в гр. София от инженер-конструктор е 150 лв.
8.Основен ремонт, началото?
In the event of a major overhaul, it is always a good idea to turn to a constructor to identify possible needs related to the construction itself and its trouble-free operation in the future. This consultation is obligatory for changes in the function spaces associated with the demolition or removal, even when the walls are not load-bearing.
Typically, this type of cracks do not increase their size during the lifetime of the structure. If the floor deformation is greater than the allowable, measures should be taken to bring it into a design state that guarantees safety and exploitation in the future. There are innovative, elegant reinforcing systems that allow „standing“ of already built reinforced concrete slabs within 24 ÷ 48 hours without the presence of „wet“ processes.
Cracking of the slab can also occur as a result of the concrete shrinkage after concreting. These cracks must be closed by a cement putty to protect steel reinforcement and concrete from external influences. This is especially important for rooms with high humidity or aggressive agents in their air environment, where filling of the cracks is absolutely necessary as soon as they occur.
9.Влагата в мазето или гаража – има ли как са се избавим от нея?
The masonry and concrete walls, which are in contact with the soil, are exposed to attack by moisture and salts, penetrating capillaries and laterally through the foundations. Even when the necessary measures are taken during the design and construction of the structure, after years defects appear in the waterproofing of the foundations and it begins to leak water into the underground premises of the building. The most affected areas are the outer walls of basements, cellars, mezzanines, underground car parks and others bordering the soil.
The use of additional steel load-bearing elements is characterized by the need of leveling plasters, large number of welds, tight connection between existing and new elements.
There are modern methods for reinforcing floor constructions – beams and slabs, as well as vertical bearing elements – washers (shear walls) and columns. Fiber-reinforced systems are modern solution to many problems with applications ranging from large infrastructure to small family houses. Fiber-reinforced systems are characterized by high efficiency and security, lower cost, low-volume repairs and quick entry into service.
10.Мога ли да спра течовете в сутеренните части или басейна, без да прибягвам към цялостна подмяна на хидроизолацията?
The answer is yes, but only in certain cases. The most commonly applied methods are by hydrophobic coating or laying a waterproofing sheet inside on the wall or/and slab. In this way, a basic cosmetic effect is achieved, as the foundations of the building remain vulnerable to the aggressive action and high humidity of the groundwater. The achieved effect often is in short term and repeated repairs are required. There is a injection technology for cracks and joints based on resins and solutions.Their main advantage is that they fill completely connected cavities in the material, micro cracks, open joints, interrupt the capillary structure of the bricks and concrete, which completely stops the recurrence of leaks and wetted areas. In any case, there is no universal solution, and the specificity of each object determines the optimal solution to the problem.
Loss of money and time is if after the overhaul it turns out that the structure has weak spots or can not respond to the increased loads after the repair. Such additional loads causing damage may be increased by weight from pavements, storage areas, new partitions, installation of jacuzzi, fitness equipment and more.